Memory is quite a beautiful and important bit of life. Memories are an integral part of our being, it brings people together and makes you realise the importance of people in life. When memories are erased from mind, it feels terrible. One of such diseases is Alzheimer’s. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common Neuro-degenerative disease that progressively destroys memory and important mental functions. Risk factors which lead to the beginning of Alzheimer’s are mainly age, reproductive stage, hormone levels, and interplay with other risk factors too. It is said that this disease mostly occurred in women than men. One in 6 women were attacked with AD, compared with one in 11 men. The reasons behind this are predicted but not determined yet. Cholesterol, diabetes, and obesity might be the factors for developing Alzheimer’s, But, The loss of Estradiol (Is an estrogen, the female sex hormone) might be the one of the factors leading to declining cognitive function in women.
Indeed, what exactly happens in the Brain of the Alzheimer’s patient is, Brain cells lose the connections and cells themselves degenerate and die. This is because there is an abnormal build-up of proteins in and around the brain cells. Those proteins are two types. Amyloid plaques, which are formed by the deposition of amyloid beta peptides. And the other one is, the aggregation of modified Tau protein to form neurofibrillary tangles. Amyloid beta 42 (AB42) peptides, which are major components of these plaques, turns the tau proteins into a pathological one, which further has no control in affecting the ovaries in females. And it is found that the replacement of Estrogen has reversed this effect i.e. brings the control over infection and protects the ovaries through an antioxidant activity, which is an excellent example of a functional benefit and a decrease of tau phosphorylation (promotes the formation of insoluble oligomeric tua species resulting in dysfunction of tau protein). Therefore, Estrogen replacement can overcome the pathological tau proteins.
Massimo Tabaton, University of Genova, Italy, who is a co-lead investigator, said that, an early postmenopausal Estrogen replacement may be protective against Alzheimer’s disease. Linking Estrogen deficiency to the changes in tau protein, the greater risk of Alzheimer’s in women significantly suggests the therapeutic avenues to defeat Alzheimer’s. Estrogen modulates neurotransmitter systems, regulates synaptogenesis (formation of junction points which are synapses, between neurons in the neuron system), and is neuroprotective. The hormone replacement therapy can lower 41% risk in females.
Through this study, the replacement therapy can make the memory stable and reduce the threat of destruction of the nervous system. The relationships can hold stronger enough with good memory, we can hope for the better treatment for our aged and loved ones.
Blessy Beulah D
Intern, Treillis Life Sciences Pvt. Ltd